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Teip (also taip) is a Chechen tribal organization or clan, self-identified through descent from a common ancestor and geographic location. There are about 130 teips (though some sources state that there may be as many as 300). More than 20 teips originated from newcomers, in particular Avars, Kumyks, Jews, Georgians, Russians, Turks. The taips descending of non-Chechen ancestors are called impure teips (in other language: su’lijn taipa, соьли тайпа). In teips internal dynamic an honor and blood feuds plays major role. The teip membership and the tukkhum membership defined the social position of a Chechen. The lack of any affiliation of a person can be described as “This man has neither a teip nor a tukkhum”.
Traditional teip rules and featuresEdit
Common teip rules and some features::
- The right of communal land tenure
- Common revenge for murder of a teip member or insulting of the members of a teip
- Unconditional exogamy
- Election of a headman
- Election of a military head (in other languages: bjachi, bjači, бячча) in case of war
- Election of a Council of Elders without property qualification
- Open sessions of the Council of Elders
- Equal right of all members of the Council of Elders
- The right of the teip to depose its representatives
- Representation of women by male relatives
- The right of the adoption of outside people
- The transfer of property of departed to members of the teips
- Every teip has a name derived from the ancestor
- The teip has a defined territory and a traditional mountain
- The teip had a teip tower or another building or natural monument convenient as a shelter, e.g. a fortress, cave or rock
- In the past the teip had its own Godhead
- The teip had specific festivities, customs, traditions and habits
- The teip had an own taip cemetery
- There was a common teip hospitality
List of teips Edit
- Akkiy tukkhum (Russian:Аккий)
- Myalkiy tukkhum (Russian:Мялкий)
- Nokhchmakhkakhoy tukkhum (Russian: Нохчмахкахой)
- Aleroy (Russian: Алерой) A small eastern teip from the Aleroy village in Kurchaloyevsky District. Many of its members do not support the separatist movement despite its being the homeland of the third separatist president Aslan Maskhadov and Turpal-Ali Atgeriev, the former Minister of Homeland Security.
- Beltagoy (Russian: Белгатой) Formerly part of the Beltoj teip.
- Benoy (Benoy, Benoi) (Russian: Беной) probably the largest teip with roughly 36,000 members. Due to its size, relation to the conflict is heterogeneous – comprising large numbers of both separatists and pro-federals. Includes President Alu Alkhanov, Malik Saidullaev and Shamil Basaev. Late President Akhmad Kadyrov and his son Ramzan Kadyrov, current Prime Minister are from here.
- Biltoy (Russian: Билтой) , teip in Nozhay-Yurtovsky District.
- Chartoy (Russian: Чартой) This teip includes both insurgents and pro-Kremlin elements.
- Chermoy (Russian: Чермой), an impure teip, mostly populates Mexkety village. Also dominates in the mountains of Chermoy-lam.
- Centoroy (Russian: Цонтарой/Центорой ) - one of the largest eastern teips.
- Elistanzhkhoy (Russian: Элистанжхой) – from Khatuni village in Vedensky District. Moved to Aldy near Grozny.
- Enganoy (Russian: Энганой) – dispersed throughout the Chechen Republic. It is considered that many Muslim Imams originate from here.
- Ersenoy (Russian: Эрсеной) – eastern teip in the Nokhchimokhk region in Shalinsky and Gudermessky Districts.
- Gendagenoy (Russian: Гендаргеной) – from historic center of Chechen Republic called Nokhchijmokhka. Many were against former president Dzhokhar Dudaev. Doku Zavgaev is from there.
- Gordaloy (Russian: Гордалой) – supporters of the separatist movement.
- Gunoi (Russian: Гуной ) Also known as White Gunoi. This north-eastern teip is largely anti-separatist and pro-Kremlin. It is impure teip originated due to diffusion of population between Russian Cossacks and some Chechen taips.
- Kharachoi (Russian: Харачой) This impure teip is largely pro-Russian. Ruslan Khasbulatov (former speaker of Russian parliament) is from there. Also dominates in the mountains of Kharachoi-lam.
- Yalkhoi (Russian: Ялхой) . Many from this teip were forced into Azerbaijan by former president Aslan Maskhadov.
- Orstkhoi (Ershtkhoy) tukkhum(Russian: Эршткхой)
- Terloy tukkhum (Russian:Терлой)
- Chantiy tukkhum (Russian: Чантий)
- Chanti (Russian: Чанти)
- Cheberloy (Chebarloy, Chebarloj) tukkhum (Russian: Чебарлой )
- Sharoy tukkhum (Russian: Шарой )
- Shotoy tukkhum (Russian: Шотой )
- Varandoy (Russian: Варандой)– one of the best known highland teips. Of outer roots according to Russian accounts.
- Tukkhum is not known
- Chinnakhoy (Russian: Чиннахой)
- Marshaloy (Russian: Маршалой)
- Mulkoy (Russian: Мулкой), a small highland teip in Shatoysky District.
- Nashkhoy (Russian: Нашхой) – ethnogenetic center of Nokhchimatnens in the Middle Ages.
- Peshkhoy (Russian: Пешхой )
- Satoy (Russian: Сатой)– aristocratic teip from Beltoj.
- Turkkhoy (Russian: Туркхой) . Turkic teip from Gashan-chu in Vedensky District, also live in Roshni-chu. Most were against former president Dzhokhar Dudaev. Ruslan Labazaev is from there. An impure teip.
- Khindkhoy (Russian: Хиндхой), a small teip located in the region of Galanchozha.
- Kalkhoy (Russian: Калхой) highland teip. The second Chechen President, Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev, is from here.
- Yalkhoroy (Russian: Ялхорой) – the Yalkhoroi village is named after this teip. Late Presidents of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Dzhokhar Dudaev and Aslan Maskhadov are both from this teip. Also Sultan Geliskhanov (head of Department of Homeland Security), Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev are from here.
- Zumsoy (Russian: Зумсой) – highland teip.
- Zurzakkhoy (Russian: Зурзакхой) – considered to be one of the most indigenous teips.
- Teips on chechen.org (In Russian )
- Russia and Eurasia Review (pdf)
- Traditional social organisation of the Chechens (pdf)
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