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Utica, New York

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Utica
—  City  —
Panorama from I-790
Nickname(s): Handshake City, Renaissance City, Second Chance City, A Car Without Gas



USA New York location map
Utica
Coordinates: 43°5′48″N 75°13′55″W / 43.09667, -75.23194
Country United States
State New York
County Oneida
Incorporated 1832
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Robert M. Palmieri (D)
 • Common Council
Area
 • Total 16.6 sq mi (43.0 km2)
 • Land 16.3 sq mi (42.3 km2)
 • Water 0.3 sq mi (0.7 km2)
Elevation 456 ft (139 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 62,235
 • Density 3,818.1/sq mi (1,471.3/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 13500-13599
Area code(s) 315
FIPS code 36-76540
GNIS feature ID 0968324

Utica /ˈjtɪkə/ is a city in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States.[1] The population was 62,235 at the 2010 census, an increase of 2.6% from the 2000 census due largely to a large immigrant refugee influx.

Utica and the neighboring city of Rome are principal cities of the Utica–Rome, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Oneida and Herkimer counties.

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

Utica is located at the shallowest spot along the Mohawk River which made it the best place for fording across, and an Iroquois Indian crossroads and fording location made trade exceedingly easy for local merchants. With a shallow spot on the river that was already inhabited by trading partners, the location was ideal for a settlement.[2]

Utica was first settled by Europeans in 1773, on the site of Fort Schuyler which was built in 1758. The fort was named Fort Schuyler after Col. Philip Schuyler, a hero of the French and Indian War. After the French and Indian War the fort was abandoned and then during the American Revolution the original settlement (Yunę́ʼnare·θ[3] in Tuscarora) was destroyed by Tories and Native Americans. The settlement eventually became known as Old Fort Schuyler when a military fort in nearby Fort Stanwix in Rome, New York was renamed Fort Schuyler during the American Revolution and evolved into a village.

In 1794, a state road was built east-southeast from Utica to Albany, New York. By 1797 the road was extended west to the Genesee River, which demarcates the "Genesee Country" of Western New York, and the entire road was thereafter called Genesee Road. The creation of the Seneca Turnpike was the first significant factor in the growth and development of Utica, as this small settlement became the resting and relocating area on the Mohawk River for goods and people moving into Western New York and past the Great Lakes.[4]

Moses Bagg, a blacksmith, built a small tavern near Old Fort Schuyler to accommodate weary travelers waiting for their horse's shoes to be repaired. After just a few years this small shanty tavern became a two story inn and pub known as Bagg's Hotel. The first bridge over the Mohawk River was erected in the summer of 1792 by a Long Island carpenter who had settled in Utica, Apollos Cooper, although local and regional architects that had seen the bridge were very skeptical to use it, and the bridge was soon destroyed in the spring floods.[5]

The perhaps apocryphal account of Utica's naming suggests that around a dozen citizens of the Old Fort Schuyler settlement met at the Bagg's Tavern to discuss the name of the emerging village. Unable to settle on one particular name, Erastus Clark's entrant of "Utica" was drawn from several suggestions, and the village thereafter became associated with Utica, Tunisia, the ancient Carthaginian city.

Utica was incorporated as a village in 1798. Utica expanded its borders in subsequent charters in 1805 and 1817.[6] Expansion and growth continued to occur in Utica; by 1817 the population had reached 2,860 people. Genesee Street was packed with shops and storefronts, a prosperous stagecoach line had expanded its business, a fully established bank was founded by Alexander Johnson, a newspaper company The Utica Observer established by William McLean, five churches as well as two hotels were all located within this center square of Utica.[2] Suffering from poor harvests in 1789 and 1802 and dreaming of land ownership, the initial settlement of five Welsh families soon attracted other agricultural migrants, settling Steuben, Utica and Remsen townships. Adapting their traditional agricultural methods, the Welsh became the first to introduce dairying into the region and Welsh butter became a valued commodity on the New York market. Drawing on the size of the local ethnic community and the printing industry of Utica became the cultural center of Welsh-American life by 1830. The Welsh-American publishing industry included 19 different publishers who published 240 Welsh language imprints, 4 denominational periodicals and the influential newspaper Y Drych.

However, the Welsh community in Utica was never very large and was often dwarfed by other ethnicities, most notably the Polish and Italians. The largest nationality group of the great migration to America between 1880 and 1920, Italians trace their presence in Utica to the arrival of Dr. John B. Marchisi in 1817. A prosperous pharmacist, he was the first of thousands of Italians to arrive in Oneida County over the next century.

Industrial eraEdit

Utica NY c1909 LOC pan 6a14200

1909 panorama

Utica's location on the Erie Canal stimulated its industrial development. The middle section of the Canal, from Rome to Salina, was the first portion to open in 1820. The Chenango Canal, connecting Utica and Binghamton, opened in 1836, and provided a further stimulus for economic development by providing water transportation of coal from Northeast Pennsylvania. Utica’s population with the creation of the canals began to skyrocket. The population began to increase threefold over a span of ten years since the first section of the canal opened in 1819. Utica was the virtual half-way point for canal travelers, thus making the town the perfect stop-over point. During the planning stage of the canal the cotton looms that would make Utica famous were in their infancy, and a vigorous real estate market in the town had ballooned lot prices tenfold since 1800. An anonymous traveler noted that by 1829, about five years after the canal's completion, Utica had become "a really beautiful place . . . [and Utica's State Street] in no respect inferior to Broadway in New York." Utica, along with other burgeoning towns such as Syracuse, would benefit from the fact that the Erie Canal ran directly through town.[7]

By the late 19th century, Utica had become a transportation hub and a commercial center of considerable note, but was not like the heavy industrial towns in New England. Utica, in particular, was limited in its capability to produce industrial goods because the Mohawk River did not run fast enough to turn the industrial machines. Upon investigating the New England style of steam production, they found how to use coal in their manufacturing. Now with the recently completed Chenango Canal that connected Utica to the coal field in Pennsylvania, there was a vast supply readily available. Because of the Embargo Act of 1807 that cut off the English textile production, the Northeast had a firm grasp on the textile industry. With investments from local entrepreneurs Utica’s textile industry was starting to really take off.[8]

UticaNY 1855

Bird's-eye view of Utica in 1855

The city still served as a Northeast crossroads, hosting the day's most celebrated personalities. Samuel Clemens lectured to a sold-out Utica crowd in 1870, where Clemens noted in personal correspondence that he brought down the house "like an avalanche."[9] It was during this time that Utica hosted the 1884 New York State Republican Convention, an event covered in great detail in Edmund Morris' Pulitzer Prize winning biography The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, in which Morris describes Utica at this time as "a shabby canal-town in the middle of the Mohawk Valley.".[10] Senator Roscoe Conkling, a leading GOP lawmaker of the Stalwart political faction, resided in the city at this time, and figured as the region's most historically significant politician until local native James Schoolcraft Sherman was elected the 27th Vice President of the United States, serving under President William Howard Taft.

Centered around the parishes of St. Mary of Mount Carmel and St. Anthony of Padua, Italian life and culture flourished, spreading throughout the county to cities, towns and small villages alike. While the immigrants arriving in the great migration usually found jobs in the local textile mills, brickyards, construction companies and unskilled manufacturing occupations, numerous entrepreneurs soon began small businesses running the spectrum of economic activity from push-cart peddlers and olive oil merchants to haberdashers, bankers and insurance agents. Italian language newspapers such as Il Pensiero Italiano, La Luce, and Il Messagero dell'Ordine, along with the humorous Il Pagliaccio and various organizational and cultural publications reflected the richness of Italian life in Oneida County.

The Italian community rapidly grew to political prominence, forming an important voting block in elections as early as 1888. By 1910 Italians were being regularly elected to office in Utica, while some historians credit the East Utica Italian community as the spark that ignited Franklin D. Roosevelt's campaign for governor of New York in 1928. From the early 1940s the Italian community has played a dominant role in Utica and area politics.

In the 1930s through the 1950s Utica became nationally if not internationally known as "Sin City" for the extent of its corruption and control by the political machine of Rufus P. Elefante.[11][12][13] Utica, from the turn of the 20th century, had an organized crime presence, largely made up of the Italian mafia. The mafia presence was largely eliminated in the 1990s by federal indictments and convictions.[14]

By the mid-20th century, virtually all of the textile mills closed and migrated to the American South. In the wake of the demise of the textile industry, Utica became a major player in the tool and die industry, which thrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, eventually declining in the late 20th century. In the early and mid-20th century, Utica had become a major manufacturing center for radios, manufactured by the General Electric company, which, at one time, employed some 8,000 workers there, and was once known as: "The radio capital of the world." However, by the mid-1960s, General Electric had moved its radio manufacturing to the Far East. In the early 1990s, GE's Light Military Electronics operation in Utica was sold to Lockheed Martin and soon closed altogether. Like the textile industry before it, the machine tool industry largely forsook Utica for the American South, with one notable example being The Chicago Pneumatic Company, which shuttered its extensive manufacturing facility in Utica in 1997 and relocated to Rock Hill, South Carolina.

Post-industrial eraEdit

Like many industrial towns and cities in the northeastern Rust Belt, Utica has experienced a major reduction in manufacturing activity in the past several decades, and is in serious financial trouble; many public services have been curtailed to save money. Suburban Utica, particularly the town of New Hartford and the village of Whitesboro, have begun to experience suburban sprawl; this is common in many New York State cities, which are suffering from what the Sierra Club termed "sprawl without growth." The city's economy is heavily dependent on commercial growth in its suburbs, a trend that is characterized by development of green sites in neighboring villages and does little to revitalize the city itself. Because of the decline of industry and employment in the post-World War II era, Utica became known as "The City that God Forgot." In the 1980s and early 1990s, some of Utica's residents could be seen driving cars with bumper stickers that read "Last One Out of Utica, Please Turn Out The Lights," clearly taking a more humorous stand on their city's rapid population loss and continued economic struggles.

Utica Railroad Station

Boehlert Center at Union Station

City leaders and local entrepreneurs tried to build on the city's losses. In 1997 the former GE-Lockheed facility was purchased by ConMed Corporation (founded by Utica local Eugene Corasanti) for use as a manufacturing facility and the company's worldwide headquarters, bringing 500 new jobs to the area.[15] The Boehlert Center at the newly restored, historic Union Station in downtown Utica is a regional transportation hub for Amtrak and the Adirondack Scenic Railway. Next door to Union Station is The Children's Museum of History, Science & Technology, a 5 story building built in the 1890s. Downtown Utica continues to be the focus of regional economic revitalization efforts. In 2010, Roefaro fulfilled a campaign promise and delivered the City's first Comprehensive Master Plan in over 50 years.[16]

The arrival of a large number of Bosnian immigrants over the past several years has stanched a population loss that had been steady for more than three decades.[17] Bosnian immigrants now constitute about 10% of the total population of Utica. Other recent immigrant groups have arrived from Somalia, Thailand, Burma, and Iraq. This influx of refugees from many war-torn nations and politically oppressive regimes has drawn mainstream national media attention, from The New York Times (see citation above) to Reader's Digest. Reader's Digest dubbed Utica the "Second Chance City" in an article chronicling the crucial role that immigrants have traditionally played in invigorating Utica's political, economic, and social life; the article argues that Utica now hosts thousands of immigrants that have taken advantage of the city's social services benefits, welfare, public and private sector affordable housing, and entry-level skilled manufacturing jobs to start a new life, a trend that began nearly thirty years ago.[18] In a cover story in their 2005 REFUGEES Magazine, the United Nations High Commission on Refugees wrote an extensive article on refugees in Utica, titling the publication, "The Town That Loves Refugees".[19]

Geography and climateEdit

Climate chart for Utica
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.76
 
32
13
 
 
2.19
 
35
15
 
 
3.19
 
44
24
 
 
3.58
 
57
34
 
 
3.53
 
71
44
 
 
4.17
 
79
53
 
 
3.85
 
83
58
 
 
3.69
 
81
57
 
 
4.40
 
73
49
 
 
3.36
 
61
39
 
 
4.06
 
48
31
 
 
3.12
 
36
20
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: Weather.com / NWS

The Erie Canal, the Mohawk River, and the New York State Thruway pass through the north part of the city. The city is adjacent to the border of Herkimer County, New York.

Utica is located in the Mohawk River Valley region of New York State.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles (43 km2), of which, 16.4 square miles (42 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) (1.57%) is water.

Utica has a humid continental climate, which is characterized by cold winters and moderate summers.

Daytime highs during the summer are generally between 75 °F (24 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C), with some days not reaching 70 °F (21 °C) being common. Summer nights usually bottom out somewhere between 50 °F (10 °C) and 60 °F (16 °C). The all-time highest recorded temperature for the city was 100 °F (38 °C), which occurred on July 19, 1953.

Winters in Utica are very cold and snowy, as the area is susceptible to Lake effect snow from the Great Lakes to the west. An example of typical wintertime snowfall amounts is presented below. Daytime highs during the wintertime are typically observed at or just above freezing (32 °F to 35 °F/0 °C to 2 °C), with some days not reaching 25 °F (-4 °C). Winter nights will see temperatures drop to settle between 10 °F (-12 °C) and 20 °F (-7 °C). Temperatures in the single digits or below zero are not uncommon for winter nights in Utica. The all time lowest recorded temperature in the city was -28 °F (-33 °C), which occurred once on February 18, 1979 and again on January 12, 1981.

Demographics Edit

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1820 2,972
1830 8,323 180.0%
1840 12,782 53.6%
1850 17,565 37.4%
1860 22,529 28.3%
1870 28,804 27.9%
1880 33,914 17.7%
1890 44,007 29.8%
1900 56,383 28.1%
1910 74,419 32.0%
1920 94,156 26.5%
1930 101,740 8.1%
1940 100,518 −1.2%
1950 100,489 0%
1960 100,410 −0.1%
1970 91,611 −8.8%
1980 75,632 −17.4%
1990 68,637 −9.2%
2000 60,651 −11.6%
2010 62,235 2.6%
Est. 2012 61,822 1.9%

According to the 1930 census, the population of the city was 101,740. By 2000 the population was down to 60,651. As of the 2010 census, the population has risen to 62,235. Thus the population gain since 2000 has represented a reversal of many decades of population decline.

As of the 2000 census, the population density was 3,710.0 people per square mile (1,432.3/km²). There were 29,186 housing units at an average density of 1,785.3 per square mile (689.2/km²). As of the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the city was 69.0% White, 15.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 7.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.5% of the population.

There were 25,100 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.3% were non-families. 37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,916, and the median income for a family was $33,818. Males had a median income of $27,126 versus $21,676 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,248. About 19.8% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.

GovernmentEdit

The city government consists of a mayor who is elected at large. The Common Council consists of nine members. Six are elected from single member wards. The other three are elected at large.

Arts, history, and cultureEdit

Sports teamsEdit

Defunct teamsEdit

The Utica Devils were a member of the American Hockey League (AHL) from 1987-1993. The Utica Bulldogs 1993-1994 and The Utica Blizzard 1994–1997 were members of the United Hockey League (UHL), and another stint from 1998-2001 (January) in which the team was called the Mohawk Valley Prowlers.

Utica was also the home of the Utica Blue Jays/Blue Sox A-class baseball team, with their last affiliation being with the Florida Marlins until 2001.

Present and futureEdit

The Utica Comets, an affiliate of the National Hockey League's Vancouver Canucks, began playing in the American Hockey League in the 2013-14 AHL season, with home games at the Utica Memorial Auditorium.[21]

Utica has two women's roller derby leagues, Central New York Roller Derby and Utica Rollergirls. Central New York Roller Derby is a Women's Flat Track Derby Association League; they have three teams, all affiliated with CNYRD. The teams are the Utica Clubbers, and the Blue Collar Betties and the Rome Wreckers. The Utica Rollergirls are also a single team league which is affiliated with USA Roller Sports. Both leagues compete against teams from other leagues in the upstate NY area and surrounding states. In addition, Utica also has a men's roller derby team, as-yet unaffiliated Quadfathers.[22]

Utica has a rugby team called The Utica Klubs, which plays rugby matches all over the state and invites several teams to Utica for matches each year.[23]

MediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

PrintEdit

Utica's daily newspaper is the Utica Observer-Dispatch. An independent news magazine, The Utica Phoenix, is also printed.

RadioEdit

EducationEdit

Utica's sole remaining public high school is Thomas R. Proctor High School, as its original public high school (Utica Free Academy, founded in 1814) shut down in 1990. Utica is also home to Notre Dame High School, a small parochial high school, founded in 1959 by the Xaverian Brothers.

Collegiate choices in Utica include: Utica College, State University of New York Institute of Technology, Mohawk Valley Community College, and Utica School of Commerce. Nearby colleges include Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, Herkimer County Community College in Herkimer, New York, and Colgate University in Hamilton, New York.

Utica is the home of Utica College, founded in 1946, as a four-year college founded by Syracuse University. Utica College was originally an urban campus in the Oneida Square area of the city. In 1961, it relocated to a modern 128-acre (0.518 km2) campus on the west side of Utica. Currently a new science wing and additional buildings are being added to the campus.

Utica is also the home of Mohawk Valley Community College, which was founded in 1946 as the New York State Center of Applied Arts and Sciences at Utica, and was the first community college established in New York State. MVCC found its true raison d'etre during the 1950s as a training facility for unemployed textile workers looking to operate technical equipment at a new General Electric plant.[24] The college became a fully accredited institution in 1960, and has gradually expanded its campus along Utica's Culver Avenue.

State University of New York Institute of Technology is located along the Utica and Marcy New York border, though it was first established in 1969 on Utica's westside. A four-year institution, SUNYIT offers a variety of technology based majors and master's degree programs.

Empire State College was founded in 1971 and is one of thirteen SUNY colleges of arts and sciences. Empire State College consists of eight centers with the Central New York Center being in Syracuse. Each center has different units providing educational services for those communities. The Utica Unit serves Oneida, Herkimer, Madison, and Otsego counties.

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Local inventionsEdit

The "Union Suit"- a type of red-colored long underwear jumpsuit with a buttoned flap on the backside was invented in Utica.

The first color newspaper, "The Utica Saturday Globe" was published in Utica.[25]

The Utica Crib, a device for restraining persons, was named for the New York State Lunatic Asylum at Utica where it was heavily used in the 19th century to confine patients who refused to stay in their beds.[26]

Notable residentsEdit


Nineteenth Century and earlierEdit

Twentieth and Twenty-First CenturyEdit

Arts and entertainment
Sportspeople
Business people
  • Real estate developer Steve Wynn is from Utica.[47]
  • David F. D'Alessandro (born January 6, 1951, Utica, New York), Chairman and CEO of John Hancock Financial Services and writer
Other

Utica in popular culture and literatureEdit

  • Utica is mentioned in Allen Ginsberg's poem Howl ("I'm with you in Rockland / where you drink the tea of the / breasts of the spinsters of Utica" ).[48]
  • Portions of the 1977 film Slap Shot starring Paul Newman were filmed at the Utica Memorial Auditorium.[49]
  • The American television program The Simpsons makes occasional reference to Utica.
    • Superintendent Chalmers is from Utica.[50]
    • The Eeny Teeny Maya Moe episode (#LABF06) shows a hockey game between the Springfield Isotopes and the Utica Mohawks.
    • Another episode features an old newsreel that ends with the narrator exclaiming, "So watch out, Utica! Springfield is a city on the... grow!"
  • The American television program The Office makes occasional reference to Utica: The "Utica branch" is one of a handful of the fictional company Dunder-Mifflin's satellite offices, and has been mentioned sporadically throughout the show.
    • The Branch Wars episode is set partly in Utica. It was not filmed there, so the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce and other local groups donated objects to dress the set to look like an actual Utica-style office.[51][52]
    • The Lecture Circuit Pt. 1 episode is also partly set in Utica.[53][54]
  • Bobbi Anderson, the protagonist of Stephen King's novel The Tommyknockers, is from Utica.[55]
  • On The Honeymooners 1950s television show starring Jackie Gleason, Alice's Uncle is from Utica.
  • The protagonist of the 1997-1998 NBC sitcom Jenny, starring Jenny McCarthy, is from Utica and the series begins there.
  • The character Dr. Albert Hirsch from the Bourne film series is from Utica, NY as noted in documents reviewed by the character Pamela "Pam" Landy during the 2007 film The Bourne Utimatium.[56]
  • Utica is mentioned in the Netflix original series "Orange is the New Black". In episode 2 of season 2 during a discussion of clothing for an interview a character says "at a medical supply company in Utica."

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ a b Clarke, T. W. (1952). Utica for a Century and a Half. Utica N.Y.: Widtman Press.
  3. ^ Rudes, B. Tuscarora English Dictionary Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999
  4. ^ Przybycien, F. E. (1976). Utica: A City Worth Saving. Utica : Dodge-Graphic Press, Inc.
  5. ^ Tomaino, F. (2008, May 29). "This Week in History: A bridge to Deerfield". Retrieved 2010-03-25, Observer-Dispatch
  6. ^ ["Utica." from The History of Oneida County; Oneida County Historical Society, 1977]
  7. ^ Wedding of the Waters, by Peter Bernstein, 2005.
  8. ^ Cookinham, H. J. (1912). History of Oneida County N.Y. Chicago: SJ Clarke Publishing Company
  9. ^ Mark Twain: A Life, by Ron Powers, 2005.
  10. ^ The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, by Edmund Morris, 1979
  11. ^ In Gotham's Shadow, Alexander R Thomas, State University of New York Press, 2003
  12. ^ "The Sin City Scandals" at Utica College
  13. ^ Guts and Glory, Tragedy and Triumph: The Rufus P. Elefante Story, Nancy Kobryn, Mohawk Valley Community College Library Collection
  14. ^ The Mob Files - The Observer-Dispatch, Utica, New York
  15. ^ "ConMed creates jobs for Oneida County". CNY Business Journal. 1997. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3718/is_199709/ai_n8778401. 
  16. ^ City of Utica Master Plan. Uticamasterplan.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  17. ^ Zielbauer, Paul (1999-05-07). "Looking to Prosper as a Melting Pot; Utica, Long in Decline, Welcomes an Influx of Refugees". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE3DD1E3CF934A35756C0A96F958260. 
  18. ^ "Second Chance City," Reader's Digest, August 2007, pp. 116-123.
  19. ^ Refugees Volume 1 Number 138 2005
  20. ^ New York Times. (1907, June 23). Gives Utica Four Parks. p. S5.
  21. ^ "Utica Comets to join AHL in 2013-14". American Hockey League. http://theahl.com/utica-comets-to-join-ahl-in-2013-14-p184568. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  22. ^ Roller Derby Worldwide
  23. ^ Utica Klubs website
  24. ^ "General Electric Helps Rebuild the Mohawk Valley," by Julia G. Diliberto, pp. 85-103, from Building the Mohawk Valley, David G. Wittner, ed., Center for Historical Research, Utica College, 2003.
  25. ^ Utica: then and Now, by Joseph Bottini and James Davis, Arcadia Publishing, 2007, p. 48
  26. ^ The Straightjacket and Utica Crib: Diagnostik: Medical Museum: University of Iowa Health Care
  27. ^ Baron von Steuben at Find a Grave
  28. ^ "WALKER, Benjamin, (1753 - 1818)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Office of the Historian, United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=W000046. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  29. ^ Horatio Seymour at Find a Grave
  30. ^ Mrs. Mecomber (June 14, 2008). "Forest Hill Cemetery, Utica, NY". New York Traveler. http://newyorktraveler.net/forest-hill-cemetery-utica-ny/. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ Roscoe Conkling at Find a Grave
  33. ^
  34. ^ James Schoolcraft Sherman at Find a Grave
  35. ^ Annette Funicello at the Internet Movie Database
  36. ^ "Music". Annette Connection. http://annetteconnection.com/Music.php. Retrieved June 23, 2013. "Promised Land, a song she and her husband, Glen Holt wrote together telling the story of her and her family's journey from New York to California." 
  37. ^ Davey Jones (April 8, 2013). "Was Annette Funicello Making Fun Of Utica In 1983 With The Song "The Promised Land"?". WODZ 96.1 AM. http://961wodz.com/was-annette-funicello-making-fun-of-utica-in-1983-with-the-song-the-promised-land/. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  38. ^ Ron O'Neal at the Internet Movie Database
  39. ^ "Feature Artist: Vaughn Bode". A&H Magazine. http://www.aandhmag.com/feature-artist-vaughn-bode/. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Happy Herbs". Art and Architecture – San Francisco. http://www.artandarchitecture-sf.com/tag/vaughn-bode. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  41. ^ Elaine Woo (11 January 2011). "Debbie Friedman, self-taught Jewish folk singer, dies at 59". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-debbie-friedman-20110111,0,4461079.story. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  42. ^ Steve Brill. Festival del Sole. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  43. ^ TJ Allard at the Internet Movie Database
  44. ^ Tiffany Pollard at the Internet Movie Database
  45. ^ moe. at Allmusic
  46. ^ http://www.greateruticasports.com/inductees/view/58/lou-lazzaro
  47. ^ John Arlidge (January 11, 2009). "Steve Wynn: Raising the stakes in Vegas". Sunday Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article5467256.ece. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  48. ^ Allen Ginsberg. "HOWL". http://www.pangloss.com/seidel/Ramble/howl_text.html. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  49. ^ Fran Perritano (May 28, 2010). "'Hanson Brothers' will return to Utica Aud". Utica Observer-Dispatch. http://www.uticaod.com/sports/hockey/x1015940764/Hanson-Brothers-will-return-to-Utica-Aud. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  50. ^ "22 Short Films About Springfield". The Simpsons Archive. http://www.snpp.com/episodes/3F18.html. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  51. ^ Elizabeth Cooper (October 3, 2007). "'The Office' in a Utica state of mind". Utica Observer-Dispatch. http://www.uticaod.com/lifestyles/x680961757. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
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  56. ^ The Film Pilgrim: The Bourne Ultimatum

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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Utica, New York. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

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