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Wyoming ( //) is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. Wyoming is the 10th most extensive, but the least populous and the second least densely populated of the 50 United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High Plains. Cheyenne is the capital and the most populous city of Wyoming with a population of nearly 60,000 people within its city proper.
Location and sizeEdit
As specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude, 41°N and 45°N, and longitude, 104°3'W and 111°3'W (27° W and 34° W of the Washington Meridian), making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states (along with Colorado and Utah) to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks. Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile (0.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles (253,340 km2) and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 365 miles (587 km) at its south end and 342 miles (550 km) at the north end.
The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), to the Belle Fourche River valley in the state’s northeast corner, at 3,125 feet (953 m). In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River and the Teton ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy and Sierra Madre ranges.
The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13,000 ft (4,000 m) tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.
The Continental Divide spans north-south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. They are the North Platte, Wind, Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers. The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin.
The continental divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean. Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.
Wyoming has 32 named islands, of which the majority are located in Jackson Lake and Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park in the northwest portion of the state. Green River in the southwest also contains a number of islands.
More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. Government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth in the U.S. in total acres and fifth in percentage of a state's land owned by the federal government. This amounts to about 30,099,430 acres (121,808.07 km2) owned and managed by the U.S. Government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another 3,864,800 acres (15,640.3 km2).
The vast majority of this government land is managed by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service in numerous National Forests, a National Grassland, and a number of vast swaths of public land, in addition to the F.E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne.
In addition, Wyoming contains areas that are under the management of the National Park Service and other agencies. They include:
- Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area
- Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area (Forest Service-Ashley National Forest)
National historic trails and sitesEdit
- California National Historic Trail
- Independence Rock (Wyoming)
- Fort Laramie National Historic Site
- Medicine Wheel National Historic Site
- Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming
- Oregon National Historic Trail
- Pony Express National Historic Trail
- John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway between Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park
Wildlife refuges and hatcheriesEdit
- Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge
- National Elk Refuge
- Jackson National Fish Hatchery
- Saratoga National Fish Hatchery
Wyoming's climate is generally semi-arid and continental (Köppen climate classification BSk), and is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 °F (29 °C) and 95 °F (35 °C) in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9,000 feet (2,700 m) averaging around 70 °F (21 °C). Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F (10–16 °C) range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in the late spring and early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches (130–200 mm) (making the area nearly a true desert). The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around 10–12 inches (250–300 mm), making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches (510 mm) or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches (510 cm) or more annually. The states highest recorded temperature is 114 °F (46 °C) at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F (−54.4 °C) at Riverside on February 9, 1933.
The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur a little further east.
|Casper climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.|
|Average max. temperature °F (°C)|| 32|
| Average min. temperature|
| Average rainfall|
|Jackson climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.|
|Average max. temperature °F (°C)|| 24|
| Average min. temperature|
| Average rainfall|
Several American Indian groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone were but a few of the original inhabitants encountered when white explorers first entered the region. What is now southwestern Wyoming became a part of the Spanish Empire and later Mexican territory of Alta California, until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican-American War. French-Canadian trappers from Québec and Montréal ventured into the state in the late 18th century, leaving French toponyms such as Téton, La Ramie, etc. John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, itself guided by French Canadian Toussaint Charbonneau and his young Shoshone wife, Sacagawea, first described the region in 1807. At the time, his reports of the Yellowstone area were considered to be fictional. Robert Stuart and a party of five men returning from Astoria discovered South Pass in 1812. The Oregon Trail later followed that route. In 1850, Jim Bridger located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which the Union Pacific Railroad used in 1868—as did Interstate 80, in ninety years' time. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded as tall tales at the time.
The region had acquired the name Wyoming by 1865, when Representative J. M. Ashley of Ohio introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The name Wyoming derives from the Munsee name xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat", but it was also named after the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell.
After the Union Pacific Railroad had reached the town of Cheyenne in 1867, the region's population began to grow steadily, and the federal government established the Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868. Unlike mineral-rich Colorado, Wyoming lacked significant deposits of gold and silver, as well as Colorado's subsequent population boom. However, South Pass City did experience a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867. Furthermore, copper was mined in some areas between the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Snowy Range near Grand Encampment.
Once government-sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country began, reports by Colter and Bridger, previously believed to be apocryphal, were found to be true. This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, which became the world's first national park in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming.
On December 10, 1869, territorial Gov. John Allen Campbell extended the right to vote to women, making Wyoming the first U.S. state to grant suffrage to women. In addition, Wyoming was also a pioneer in welcoming women into politics. Women first served on juries in Wyoming (Laramie in 1870); Wyoming had the first female court bailiff (Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870); and the first female justice of the peace in the country (Esther Hobart Morris, South Pass City, in 1870). Also, in 1924, Wyoming became the first state to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross, who took office in January 1925. (In fact, Wyoming and Texas both elected female governors at the same time, but Wyoming's took office sixteen days before Texas's.) Due to its civil-rights history, Wyoming's state nickname is "The Equality State", and the official state motto is "Equal Rights".
Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892, on which the controversial 1980 film Heaven's Gate was based, which erupted between competing groups of cattle ranchers. The passage of the federal Homestead Act led to an influx of small ranchers. A range war broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Wyoming was 576,412 on July 1, 2012, a 2.3% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The center of population of Wyoming is located in Natrona County.
According to the 2010 Census, 90.7% of the population was White (85.9% non-Hispanic white), 0.8% was Black or African American, 2.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2.2% from two or more races. 8.9% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).
As of 2012, Wyoming had an estimated population of 576,412, which was an increase of 9,056, or 1.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 12,786, or 2.3%, since the 2010 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (Birth Rate of 14.04). Sparsely populated, Wyoming is the least populous (total number of people) state of the United States, and has the second lowest population density, behind Alaska. It is one of only two states with a smaller population than the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. (the other state is Vermont).
|Demographics of Wyoming (csv)|
|AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander|
|2000 (total population)||96.19%||1.01%||3.06%||0.84%||0.13%|
|2000 (Hispanic only)||6.05%||0.11%||0.32%||0.06%||0.02%|
|2005 (total population)||96.01%||1.15%||3.06%||0.90%||0.12%|
|2005 (Hispanic only)||6.38%||0.15%||0.27%||0.05%||0.01%|
|Growth 2000-2005 (total population)||2.95%||17.26%||3.16%||10.32%||-3.47%|
|Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only)||2.57%||14.20%||4.95%||12.17%||0.18%|
|Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only)||8.66%||42.08%||-12.31%||-14.09%||-28.40%|
As of 2011, 24.9% of Wyoming's population younger than age 1 were minorities.
The religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming are shown in the table below:
- Christian – 79%
- Other Religions – 1%
- Non-Religious – 18%
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Catholic Church with 80,421; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 47,129 (in 2010 was 63,069); and the Wyoming Southern Baptist Convention with 17,101.
According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming’s gross state product was $27.4 billion.
As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 7.6%. Components of Wyoming's economy differ significantly from those of other states.
The mineral extraction industry and travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming’s economy. The federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state.
In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming’s national parks and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Devils Tower National Monument, Independence Rock and Fossil Butte National Monument. Each year Yellowstone National Park, the world's first national park, receives three million visitors.
Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming’s economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming’s economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming’s culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural.
- Coal: Wyoming produced 395.5 million short tons (358.8 million metric tons) of coal in 2004. The state is the number one producer of coal in the U.S. Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion metric tons) of coal. Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin and the Green River Basin
- Natural gas: Wyoming produced 2,254 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 2007. The state ranked 2nd nationwide for natural gas production in 2007. The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating.
- Coal Bed Methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming’s coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production in the Powder River Basin. In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 km³).
- Crude oil: Wyoming produced 53,400,000 barrels (8,490,000 m3) of crude oil in 2007. The state ranked 5th nationwide in oil production in 2007. Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber.
- Trona: Wyoming possesses the largest known reserve of trona in the world Trona is used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2008 Wyoming produced 46 million short tons (41.7 million metric tons) of trona, 25% of the world's production.
- Diamonds: The Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine, located in Colorado less than 1,000 feet (300 m) from the Wyoming border, produced gem quality diamonds for several years. The Wyoming craton, which hosts the kimberlite volcanic pipes that were mined, underlies most of Wyoming.
- Uranium: Although uranium mining in Wyoming is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.
Wyoming receives more federal tax dollars per capita in aid than any other state except Alaska. The federal aid per capita in Wyoming is more than double the U.S. average. Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax. There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.
Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Mine lands, underground mining equipment, and oil and gas extraction equipment are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax on minerals and a severance tax on mineral production.
Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, Wyoming's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died in 2005. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.
In 2008, the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states. Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year 2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas, trona, and coal provided $1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production.
The largest airport in Wyoming is Jackson Hole Airport, with over 500 employees. Three interstate highways and thirteen U.S. highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system.
Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 in Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo. Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston and runs east through the southern half of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs. Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman and cuts through the northern part of the state. It serves Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance.
Wind River Indian ReservationEdit
The Wind River Indian Reservation is shared by the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans in the central western portion of the state near Lander. The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho.
Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868 as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger Treaty. However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation.
Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources. The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribal Government and the Northern Arapaho Tribal Government. The Eastern Shoshone Business Council meets jointly with the Northern Arapaho Business Council as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes. Six elected council members from each tribe serve on the joint council.
State law and governmentEdit
The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.
Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a single at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College. Its low population renders Wyoming voters effectively more powerful in presidential elections than those in more populous states. For example, while Montana had a 2010 census population of 989,415 to Wyoming's 563,626, they both have the same number of electoral votes.
Wyoming is an alcoholic beverage control state.
Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's size and correspondingly lower caseload. Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court. Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well. All state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor. They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate.
|2008||64.78% 164,958||32.54% 82,868|
|2004||68.86% 167,629||29.07% 70,776|
|2000||67.76% 147,947||27.70% 60,481|
|1996||49.81% 105,388||36.84% 77,934|
|1992||39.70% 79,347||34.10% 68,160|
|1988||60.53% 106,867||38.01% 67,113|
|1984||70.51% 133,241||28.24% 53,370|
|1980||62.64% 110,700||27.97% 49,427|
|1976||59.30% 92,717||39.81% 62,239|
|1972||69.01% 100,464||30.47% 44,358|
|1968||55.76% 70,927||35.51% 45,173|
|1964||43.44% 61,998||56.56% 80,718|
|1960||55.01% 77,451||44.99% 63,331|
Wyoming's political history defies easy classification. The state was the first to grant women the right to vote and to elect a woman governor. On December 10, 1869, John Allen Campbell, the first Governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in United States history explicitly granting women the right to vote. This day was later commemorated as Wyoming Day. On November 5, 1889, voters approved the first constitution in the world granting full voting rights to women.
While the state elected notable Democrats to federal office in the 1960s and 1970s, politics have become decidedly more conservative since the 1980s as the Republican Party came to dominate the state's congressional delegation. Today, Wyoming is represented in Washington by its two Senators, Mike Enzi and John Barrasso, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Cynthia Lummis. All three are Republicans. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, one of only five times since statehood. At present, there are only two relatively reliably Democratic counties: affluent Teton and college county Albany. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989.
Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats held the governorship for all but eight years between 1975 and 2011. Uniquely, Wyoming elected Democrat Nellie Tayloe Ross as the first woman in U.S. history to serve as state governor. She served from 1925 to 1927 after winning a special election after her husband, William Bradford Ross, unexpectedly died a little more than a year into his term.
The state of Wyoming has 23 counties.
Wyoming license plates contain a number on the left that indicates the county where the vehicle is registered, ranked by an earlier census. The county license plate numbers are as follows:
Cities and townsEdit
The State of Wyoming has 98 incorporated municipalities.
|1||City of Cheyenne||Laramie||59,466|
|2||City of Casper||Natrona||55,316|
|3||City of Laramie||Albany||30,816|
|4||City of Gillette||Campbell||29,087|
|5||City of Rock Springs||Sweetwater||20,905|
|6||City of Sheridan||Sheridan||17,461|
|7||City of Green River||Sweetwater||12,149|
|8||City of Evanston||Uinta||11,781|
|9||City of Riverton||Fremont||10,032|
|10||Town of Jackson||Teton||9,806|
|11||City of Cody||Park||9,309|
|12||City of Rawlins||Carbon||8,740|
|13||City of Lander||Fremont||7,264|
|14||City of Douglas||Converse||5,971|
|15||City of Powell||Park||5,524|
|16||City of Torrington||Goshen||5,514|
|17||City of Worland||Washakie||4,958|
|18||City of Buffalo||Johnson||4,832|
|19||Town of Newcastle||Weston||3,390|
|20||Town of Wheatland||Platte||3,298|
In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.
|Cheyenne, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area||Laramie County, Wyoming||91,738|
|Casper, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area||Natrona County, Wyoming||75,450|
|Gillette, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Campbell County, Wyoming||46,133|
|Rock Springs, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Sweetwater County, Wyoming||43,806|
|Riverton, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Fremont County, Wyoming||40,123|
|Laramie, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Albany County, Wyoming||36,299|
|Jackson, WY-ID, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Teton County, Wyoming||21,294|
|Teton County, Idaho||8,833|
|Sheridan, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Sheridan County, Wyoming||29,116|
|Evanston, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area||Uinta County, Wyoming||21,118|
Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and text book selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming, but it closed in summer of 2000.
Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills. The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicts that in a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved.
- Wyoming Cavalry, American Indoor Football Association
- University of Wyoming, football, basketball, Swimming, diving, soccer, golf, wrestling, tennis, volleyball, track and field, and rodeo.
- USS Wyoming was named in honor of this state.
Wyoming was chosen as the official state for the Free State Wyoming project; a splinter of the Free State Project. The purpose of the project is to relocate Libertarians to a single state, making it possible to live a "free life".
In 2008, The first American State Litter Scorecard rated Wyoming a nationally "Best" state for statewide litter/debris eradication from public properties/spaces.
- State bird: Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
- State coin: Sacagawea dollar
- State dinosaur: Triceratops
- State emblem: Bucking Horse and Rider
- State fish: Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki)
- State flag: Flag of the State of Wyoming
- State flower: Wyoming Indian paintbrush (Castilleja linariifolia)
- State fossil: Knightia
- State gemstone: Wyoming nephrite jade
- State grass: Western Wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii)
- State mammal: American Bison (Bison bison)
- State motto: Equal Rights
- State nicknames: Equality State; Cowboy State; Big Wonderful Wyoming
- State reptile: Horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre)
- State seal: Great Seal of the State of Wyoming
- State soil: Forkwood (unofficial)
- State song: Wyoming (song) by Charles E. Winter & George E. Knapp
- State sport: Rodeo
- State tree: Plains Cottonwood (Populus sargentii)
- John Perry Barlow
- John Barrasso
- Eli Bebout
- Charles Belden
- Tom Bell
- James Bridger
- Harriet Elizabeth Byrd
- Cale Case
- Dick Cheney
- Lynne Cheney
- William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody
- Alex Cord
- Barbara Cubin
- Lance Deal
- David R. Edwards
- Mike Enzi
- Matthew Fox
- Dave Freudenthal
- John Frullo
- Rulon Gardner
- Jim Geringer
- Mark Gordon
- Curt Gowdy
- Charles G. Hall
- Clifford Hansen
- William Henry Harrison
- Stanley K. Hathaway
- Harold Hellbaum
- Edgar Herschler
- Tom Horn
- Ray Hunkins
- Craig Johnson
- Ralph S. Johnson
- Richard R. "Dick" Jones
- Mike Leach
- Chris LeDoux
- Cynthia Lummis
- Randall Luthi
- Nate Marquardt
- Max Maxfield
- Leonard McEwan
- Gale W. McGee
- Mary Mead
- Matt Mead
- Joseph B. Meyer
- Ron Micheli
- Lori Millin
- Esther Hobart Morris
- Warren A. Morton
- Bob Nicholas
- Phil Nicholas
- John C. Ostlund
- Gordon L. Park
- Bryan Pedersen
- James Cash Penney
- Jackson Pollock
- Wayde Preston
- Annie Proulx
- Charles E. Richardson
- Nellie Tayloe Ross
- William B. Ross
- George R. Salisbury, Jr.
- Robert Schliske
- Joseph Selby
- Bryan Sharratt
- Matthew Shepard
- Larry D. Shippy
- Alan K. Simpson
- Colin M. Simpson
- Milward Simpson
- Mike Sullivan
- Craig Thomas
- Richard V. Thomas
- Elton Trowbridge
- Thomas E. Trowbridge
- Malcolm Wallop
- Tom Walsh
- Alvin Wiederspahn
- Larry Wilcox
- ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012" (CSV). 2012 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. December 2012. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/national/totals/2012/index.html. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- ^ "Gannett Peak Cairn". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/ds_mark.prl?PidBox=OW0356. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
- ^ Willam J. Gribb; Lawrence M. Ostrech. "Databases and Algorithms to Determine the Boundary of Wyoming". Retrieved on December 14, 2008.
- ^ Ivars Peterson. "Rectangular States and Kinky Borders". http://www.maa.org/mathtourist/mathtourist_08_30_07.html. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
- ^ a b MainEnvironment.org Public Land Ownership by State, 1995 Main Environment.org
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- ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 576
- ^ State of Wyoming – Narrative
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- ^ "South Pass City Historic Site.". http://wyoparks.state.wy.us/Site/Brochure/SouthPassCity.pdf. Wyoming State Parks, Historic Sites & Trails
- ^ Mines Register: Successor to the Mines Handbook and the Copper Handbook, Describing the Non-ferrous Metal Mining Companies in the Western Hemisphere. 1911. http://books.google.com/?id=M8pIAAAAMAAJ. Mines Publication, 1911. Original from the University of Michigan.
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- ^ http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php
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- ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/56000.html
- ^ "Hispanics fastest growing ethnic group in Wyoming". Billings Gazette via AP. May 21, 2007. http://www.billingsgazette.net/articles/2007/05/21/news/wyoming/40-growing.txt. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html.
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- ^ a b Gearino, Jeff (February 16, 2009). "Soda ash companies enjoy record year". Casper Star Tribune. http://www.casperstartribune.net/articles/2009/02/16/news/wyoming/4b7e9a771fe4bd868725755e00268e51.txt.
- ^ https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/fas-10.pdf
- ^ Votes back repeal of food tax, Billings Gazette, March 3, 2006
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- ^ Alleged "diploma mills" flocking to Wyoming, by Mead Gruver, Seattle Times, February 9, 2005
- ^ Unaccredited Colleges, Potential problems with degree suppliers located in these states – Wyoming, Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization
- ^ World Almanac & Book of Facts, Reader's Digest Publishing, 2008
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